2014 – 2016 人类生态足迹概要

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OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA, APRIL 25, 2019—The 2019 edition of the National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts tracks the Ecological Footprint and biocapacity of all countries, using U.N. data, from 1961 to 2016. This is two years further than last year’s edition, since U.N. data is becoming available more rapidly.

world ecological footprint and biocapacity per personOne finding is that humanity’s carbon Footprint dropped 1.4 percent between 2014 and 2016, bringing the total Ecological Footprint—a measure of global human demand for biological resources—down 0.5 percent over the same period. Recent data pointing to significant increases in carbon emissions throughout 2017 and 2018 suggest that this trend was short-lived, however.

Because carbon emissions require land covered with forests to be absorbed, they are counted as a competing human demand on the planet in the Ecological Footprint accounts. They compete for land area with demands for food, forest products, fibers, or infrastructure needs such as roads and buildings. In fact, the carbon Footprint accounts for 60 percent of the current Ecological Footprint of humanity. Overall, humanity’s demand for goods and services from ecological systems is currently 75 percent higher than what the planet can renew today.

“Our data show that we use as much from nature as if we lived on 1.75 Earths, yet we only have one. This is not a judgement, just a measurement. In this context, bringing human activity back within the ecological budget of our one planet is not about doing the noble thing or easing our guilty conscience. It is about choosing self-interest and what works. We will move out of ecological overshoot. Why choose to get there by disaster rather than by design?” —DR. MATHIS WACKERNAGEL, Founder and President of Global Footprint Network

All the Footprint and biocapacity data up to 2016 is freely available on the Ecological Footprint Explorer open data platform atdata.footprintnetwork.org. Additionally, “nowcasting” capabilities to forecast results to 2019 and licenses for more detail on countries’ demand by consumer activities are available for a fee.

The shrinking of the total global Ecological Footprint in 2016, the latest year with a complete U.N. data set, is mostly due to a 1.4 percent drop in the carbon Footprint over the 2014-2016 period. This led to an average per-person Ecological Footprint worldwide of 2.8 global hectares (gha), compared to 1.6 gha per person of available biocapacity. (Biocapacity represents the productivity of the Earth’s ecological assets; a global hectare is a biologically productive hectare with world average productivity.)

As of 2016, eighty-six percent of the world’s population lives in a country with an ecological deficit. A country runs an ecological deficit when its residents demand more from nature than the country’s own ecosystems can regenerate. Seventy-one percent of the world’s population lives in a country with an ecological deficit and below world-average income, and therefore are unlikely to be able to buy their way out of the resource crunch.

Highlights of the new Footprint data and tools

  • Last year, the United Nations’ persistent efforts to improve access to pertinent data resulted in shortening the delay in available data from three to two years. Not only did this change give researchers access to two years worth of data (2015, 2016) since last year’s edition, but this one-year gain in data availability delay brings the accurate assessment of countries’ Ecological Footprint and biocapacity that much closer to the current time, improving researchers’ ability to describe the recent reality and to assess current trends.
  • The 2019 edition of the National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts was produced, for the very first time, under the close observation of the team at York University’s Faculty of Environmental Studies (FES) who is part of the Ecological Footprint Initiative. Going forward, the Ecological Footprint Initiative team in Toronto will be entrusted with producing National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts data with the support of Global Footprint Network, in the context of the partnership created in 2018 by both organizations with a view to ensuring ever more robust and transparent data in the future.

“Our faculty and students continue to appreciate and use global data on the Ecological Footprint and biocapacity of countries. These remain the best metrics for calculating human demand on the environment. We look forward to continuing the important work of producing the National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts and leading a global research network committed to its application by policy-makers and the public.” —DR. ALICE J. HOVORKA, Dean & Professor of the Faculty of Environmental Studies at York University

Some country trends worth watching

All the results shown in this section reflect the perspective of a country’s consumption. This perspective tracks what is produced within the country plus the Footprint of trade (imports minus exports).

Venezuela

Venezuela’s total Ecological Footprint dropped 20 percent between 2014 and 2016, reflecting the dramatic deterioration of the country’s economy over the same period. The largest driver is the 50 percent decrease of the national cropland Footprint, due to a 58 percent collapse in Ecological Footprint of imports of agricultural products and a whopping 34 percent decline in local agricultural output. The carbon Footprint closely follows behind with a 12.8 percent decrease caused by the severe economic recession. Overall, the Ecological Footprint and GDP trends are closely aligned in this case. Rampant inflation began in 2015. By 2016, President Maduro declared economic emergency.

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom’s carbon Footprint dropped 11.7 percent between 2014 and 2016, driving the country’s total Ecological Footprint down 8.8 percent. The U.K.’s total carbon Footprint has decreased by 29 percent since its 2007 peak and by around 26 percent since 1990, faster than any other major high-income country. These trends continue into 2017, largely driven by a significant decline in coal use, according to Carbon Brief: “The most significant factors include a cleaner electricity mix based on gas and renewables instead of coal, as well as falling demand for energy across homes, businesses and industry.” Remarkably, the U.K. is one of 19 countries to have significantly lowered their fossil fuel emissions over the past decade without decreasing their GDP. The “decoupling” of GDP and Ecological Footprint is certainly a hot trend to watch for the in the years to come.

On a different note, lower crop yields in 2016 cause the cropland Footprint of the U.K. to decline by 13 percent. According to the U.K.’s farming statistics, wheat and barley yields dropped 12 percent and 11 percent respectively after a couple of years of peak performance but they remain in line with longer term averages. Meanwhile, blackgrass and other weeds, poor drainage and disease caused oilseed rape yields to drop 21 percent.

Europe

 

Many countries in Europe, including France and Germany, are showing a trend in decoupling of GDP and Ecological Footprint that echoes the trend in the U.K.. Europe’s carbon Footprint, which contributes to 60 percent of the region’s total Ecological Footprint, has decreased by 21 percent since 2007, including 3.7 percent between 2014 and 2016. This decline has been a major driver is drawing Europe’s Ecological Footprint down by 15 percent over the same period, lowering the ecological deficit by about 34 percent. Europe still uses 35 percent more goods and services from nature than its own natural ecosystems can renew.

Note that from 1991 on, the Europe region data set includes the breakaway countries from former Yugoslavia, the Baltic States, Belarus, Moldova, and Russia.

United States

 

The USA’s total Ecological Footprint has decreased over the past decade, largely driven by an 18 percent decrease in its carbon Footprint between 2005 and 2016. This is due to competition from natural gas and renewables, which have displaced coal-fired power as a cheaper option for electricity production. However, this trend was reversed in 2017 and 2018, according to more recent US data that the National Footprint Accounts will start taking into account in its next edition as 2017 U.N. data is made available. America’s carbon dioxide emissions rose by 3.4 percent in 2018, the biggest increase in eight years. Colder winters in the Northeast have spiked the use of oil and gas for heating. Hotter summers around the country have increased power usage for cooling, boosting emissions. Other factors include a boost in manufacturing and a relative expansion of the national economy, leading to higher emissions from factories, trucks and air travel. The U.S. has yet to find its path toward decoupling its carbon Footprint from economic growth.

Russia

 

The continuous 12 percent slide of Russia’s Ecological Footprint since 2011 has mainly been driven by the 18 percent decrease of its carbon Footprint. Rather than a “decoupling” phenomenon between GDP growth and lower carbon emissions, however, this decrease reflects the economic difficulties that Russia struggled with over that period. Factors include the continued downward momentum of oil prices since their 2012 peak, and the sanctions imposed by the United States, the 28-nation European Union, Norway, Canada, and Australia in retaliation for Russia’s interference in Ukraine. The weak ruble and changes in state support programs which make beef imports too expensive for most potential buyers in Russia, compounded in 2014 by Russia’s retaliatory ban on food products from those same countries, including meat, are reflected in the 38 percent drop of the grazing Footprint between 2012 and 2016.

Russia has also enjoyed a 51 percent growth of its total cropland biocapacity (+50 percent per person) since its momentous 2012 grain harvest failure due to the exceptional drought in its Eastern agricultural regions. While expanding farmland areas account for 3 percent of this increase (or 1.58 million global hectares), improved yields make up the rest. Since 2011, Russia has grown its total ecological reserve by 85 percent (86 percent per person) despite losing 1.6 percent of its forest biocapacity over the same period.

China

Unlike European countries, China’s total carbon Footprint soared in the post economic recession era. It increased by 39 percent from 2007 to 2014, reaching its peak in 2014. Since then, it has decreased by 2 percent thanks to a significantly reduced use of coal. From 2014 to 2016, expanded renewable and nuclear power generation was able to cover the slow growth in overall electricity consumption, according to Carbon Brief. This led to a slight decline in coal-fired power generation. However, 2017 and 2018 energy data point to a trend reversal. Electricity demand grew so fast in those two recent years – driven by growth in heavy manufacturing as well as contributions from household use and the service sector – that new low-carbon sources could not keep up. According to the Global Carbon Project, emissions grew by 2.3 percent from 2017 to 2018 due to more coal consumption for electricity production.

Since 2004, China, not unlike Russia, has grown its total cropland biocapacity by a whopping 19.3 percent (20 percent per person) – including 3.5 percent between 2014 and 2016 alone – increasing total biocapacity by 13 percent over the same period. Much of this upward trend is due to policies and government spending designed to improve agricultural sciences and practices in order to improve crop yield stability and performance, fending off the specter of feeding a large population from a relatively small area of available farmland. In addition, China has been expanding its total forested land by 32 percent since 1990.

Cuba

 

Cuba’s ecological deficit per person dropped 22.4 percent between 2010 and 2016, as its Ecological Footprint per person decreased by 10 percent and its biocapacity per person grew by 13 percent. The 23 percent decrease in the carbon Footprint per person is the main driver of the Ecological Footprint’s slide. Whether this trend continues hinges on the country’s commitment, in line with the Paris Climate Agreement, to generate 24 percent of its power from renewable sources by 2030. Cuba’s new Constitution, which was approved by referendum in February 2019, includes amendments directing Cuba to “promote the conservation of the environment and the fight against climate change, which threatens the survival of the human species.”

Between 2010 and 2016, Cuba increased its biocapacity per person by 13 percent (or 15 percent total) thanks to a 9 percent expansion of its total forested areas and a 28 percent boost of its total cropland biocapacity. The latter was made possible through agricultural transformation policies and programs designed, since 2007, to increase the country’s agricultural food self-sufficiency and biofuels capacity, reduce its dependence on imports, and possibly boost exports. However, the trend is expected to register a severe slow down, if not a halt, past 2016 due to extreme weather events, including Hurricane Irma in 2017, and the impact of the Venezuelan crisis on the Cuban economy.

7.29 地球超载日2019:不断提前的透支日

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美国加州奥克兰 2019年6月24日- 人类已在本年7月29日将今年预算的全球天然资源用尽。 基于全球生态足迹网络的估算统计, 在过去的20年, 地球生态资源超载日不断提前。(全球足迹网络 致力于推动 全球生态可持续性,并开创生态资源会计方法。这种生态资源会计法是把人类所有需求做总结算,主要包括下列项目:粮食,木材,纺织纤维,二氧化碳(碳)的回收,以及交通的需求。目前燃烧化石燃料(石油及煤等)所产生的碳占人类生态足迹的百分之六十。)

“生态资源超支日”  指人类对自然资源索取超过该整年地球生态系统所能再生还原的一天。 在1970 年代人 类首次将 “超支日”提前。  过去的二十年内, 人类造成超支日前移三个月。 今年的超支日是7月29日,这也是有史以来最早的。  7月29日代表人类目前对天然资源的抽取等于地球生态系统所能再生的1.75 倍。  换句话说就是我们使用了1.75 个地球。 我们之所以能如此超支是因我们逐渐挖空了地球的天然资源,如此更进一步危害地球未来的再生还原能力。

 

全球各地都有明显的生态资源超支征兆,包括森林破坏,土壤流失,生物多样性的衰减,以及大气中二氧化碳的堆积以及因其所引起的气候变化,导致严重的旱灾,水灾,野火,台风等。

马西斯•华可瑞格尔博士呼吁  “我们并不能常期拥用1.75个地球,我们只有一个地球,必须诚认人类生存面临重大危机”。   华博士是生态资源会计方法的发明人,也是全球生态足迹网络的创建人。 他进一步指出 “人类活动是不可避免地被地球生态资源所约束。 我们面临的难题是: 譲灾难来引导我们进入将来,还是我们有计划地迎接将来。 换句话说,我们的目标是居住在一个悲惨的地球,还是繁荣的地球。”

推后生态资源超支日与迈向  “一个繁荣地球的期望 “是相关而相容的。我们有能力停止此危险的趋势!如果我们每年把此超支日推后五天,人类将在2050年前达到 “一个繁 荣地球”  的目标。  在2019年超支日之前,全球生态足迹网络将强调目前改善措施的机会及预估其对超支日推后的效应。  例如以素食取代50%的肉类可把超支日推后十五天 (包括由于减少畜牧的甲烷排放所导致的十天。)  减少全球人类生态足迹的碳排放50% 便可把超支日推后93天。

目前已有超过八万人签署给美国及欧洲决策者的请愿书,要把生物资源的管理作为他们策略的中心,以此来推后超支日从7月29日到年底。

2019年推后生态资源超支日的工作项目包括:

  • 生态足迹计算器(www.Footprintcalculator.org)  也可用来计算个人使用者的生态足迹及超支日。现有法,德,西班牙及意大利文,并将在超支日前增加中文及葡萄牙文。目前已有一千五百万人使用该计算器。
  • 全球生态足迹网络及其伙伴将邀请公众共同探索 “推后超支日运动”以支持全球迈向“一个繁荣地球”的相关措施。这些步骤与下面五大项目相连:能源,粮食,都市,人口,及地球,包括下面行动的机会:引导群众参与对话,开办工作场所作业(例如减少食物浪费等),及请求政府认真而负责地管理天然资源。

更多信息:

www.overshootday.org/solutions:  探索有关项目 Https://www.overshootday.org/newsroom/infographics/:  相关可直接使用的图像 www.overshootday.org: 更多生态资源超支日数据

www.footprintcalculator.org: 个人生态足迹计算器

data.footprintnetwork.org: 所有国家公开的生态足迹及生物界总资源量资料

https://www.newsociety.com/Books/E/Ecological-Footprint: 有关生态足迹新书及摘要, 可供复印发表

社会新闻 “推后地球资源超支日“

全球生态足迹网络

全球生态足迹网络是一个国际组织致力于研究增强生态可持续性的测算,以帮助人类活在地球所能供应的界限内,以及对付气候变化。自2003年开始我们已与五十多国,三十个城市,及七十个全球伙伴合作,共同研究复杂的科学知识,从而做出有影响力的政策及经济投资开发决定。我们将同心协力创造繁荣的地球,让大家在地球界限内生活愉悦。www.footprintnetwork.org

联络

Kristine Jiao焦予薇 – (英文和中文) – 美国
+1 (510) 839-8879 x4 (PDT)
media@footprintnetwork.org

Laetitia Mailhes – (语和法语) – 法国
+1 (510) 839-8879 x308 (CET)
laetitia.mailhes@footprintnetwork.org

中国是否能实现生态文明转型?

By | Guizhou Initiative, 未分类 | No Comments

构建与自然和谐共处的经济发展模式是习近平主席关于国家向生态文明转型美好愿景的重要体现。

中国是否可以实现这样的文明?

为了寻求答案,我们与贵州省达成了合作关系。我们于7月6日在贵阳举办的“生态文明贵阳国际论坛2016年年会”中发布了合作的重要成果《贵州生态足迹报告:生态文明量化标准》。

毋庸置疑的是,中国正面临着极大的挑战:迅速增长的资源需求已经超过其可以提供的生态资源和服务;对石油燃料的严重依赖;人们对经济发展的期望,尤其是欠发展地区人民渴望脱离经济发展的困境。

贵州足迹报告受到瑞士政府的鼎力支持。作为中国独特拥有山地生态系统,丰富生物多样性和多民族群体的地区,贵州和瑞士却有着相似的地理环境。报告中分析对比了两个国家的情况。

接下来是我们关于贵州面临挑战的重要发现:

  • 贵州人均年收入为18700元(约2852美元),人均生态足迹为72gha与中国其他省区相比,贵州的人均收入排名倒数第五,人均生态足迹排名倒数第六。中国人均生态足迹为3.4gha而瑞士的为5.8gha。而报告的最终研究表明,贵州人均生态足迹已经达到1.98gha。
  • 在贵州,生态足迹的51%来自政府和民间对耐用资产的投资, 其余 49% 则来自于家庭日常消费, 包括食品, 住房, 交通, 商品和服务。在中国,47% 的足迹来自私人和政府投资,而53% 来自家庭消费。相反,在瑞士,29% 的足迹来自私人和政府投资,而71% 来自家庭消费。
  • 根据联合国的人类发展指数计算,测量人类幸福,贵州为62。低于0.7的高发展水平也低于中国平均值0.73。

我们与贵州合作的成果基于世界自然基金会中国(WWF China)与全球足迹网络合作的《中国生态足迹报告》。我们共同热切盼望中国更多省份加入我们。我们下一站将前往四川省。

全球足迹网络和中国科学院(IGSNRR)有着密切合作关系。中国专家学者已经在国际学科刊物上发表许多有关生态足迹的论文。全球足迹网络希望加速促成中国学术在生态足迹核算方面的领导地位。

更多信息请浏览www.zujiwangluo.org 或 www.chinafootprint.org。点击这里下载英文报告或者点击这里下载中文报告. 我们同时提供一份一页的简短概要,请点击这里.

世界粮食价格波动将对中国和印度GDP造成最大影响

By | Ecological Limits, 未分类 | No Comments

Report published by UNEP and Global Footprint Network ranks countries on the economic risks they face from a hike in food prices

(London 18 May 2016) – If global food prices double then China could lose $161 billion in GDP and India could lose $49 billion, according to a new report released today by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Global Footprint Network.

The UNEP-Global Footprint Network report, entitled ERISC Phase II: How food prices link environmental constraints to sovereign credit risk, features a table that ranks countries according to how badly they will be affected if global food commodity prices double.

In the future, the world will likely suffer from higher and more volatile food prices as a result of a growing imbalance between the supply and demand of food, the report notes. Rising populations and incomes will intensify the demand for food while climate change and resource scarcity will disrupt food production.

The report, which was published in collaboration with Cambridge Econometrics and several leading financial institutions, models the impact of a global food price shock on 110 countries to assess which countries face the greatest economic risk from this growing imbalance.

In terms of the highest percentage loss to GDP, the five countries that will be worst hit if food commodity prices double are all in Africa – Benin, Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire, Senegal and Ghana. But China will see the most amount of money wiped from its GDP of any country – $161 billion, equivalent to the total GDP of New Zealand. India will see the second highest loss to GDP – $49 billion, equivalent to the total GDP of Croatia.

Among the report’s other key findings are:

  • Overall, Egypt, Morocco and Philippines could suffer the most from a doubling of food prices in terms of the combined impact on GDP, current account balance and inflation.
  • 17 out of the 20 countries most at risk from a food price shock are in Africa.
  • Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Australia, Canada and the US would benefit the most from a sharp increase in food commodity prices.
  • Globally, negative effects of a food price shock massively outweigh positive effects in absolute terms. While China could see an absolute reduction in GDP of $161 billion, the highest absolute positive effect on GDP, seen in the United States, is only $3 billion –50 times smaller than the impact on China.
  • In 23 countries, a doubling in food prices leads to a 10 per cent (or more) rise in the consumer price index.
  • Countries with higher sovereign credit ratings tend to be less exposed to risks resulting from a food price spike.
  • Countries whose populations have the highest consumption of natural resources and services, and are therefore most responsible for the environmental constraints that make future food prices higher and more volatile, tend to face the lowest risk exposure.

UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner said, “Fluctuations in food prices are felt directly by consumers and reverberate throughout national economies. As environmental pressures mount, it is important to anticipate the economic impact of these stresses so that countries and investors can work on mitigating and minimizing risk. And as the global population continues to rise, food prices can be a bellwether for how environmental risk translates to economic risk and vulnerability.”

Susan Burns, co-founder of Global Footprint Network and director of its Finance Initiative, said: “Now more than ever, in this era of climate change, identifying all relevant environmental risks is crucial to investing not only in equities but also sovereign bonds.

“As this latest research shows, disruptions to our food system represent one substantial environmental risk that both investors and governments may be largely overlooking but would be well-served to integrate into their risk analysis.”

The ERISC Phase II report was published in collaboration with Cambridge Econometrics and several financial institutions: Caisse des Dépôts, First State Investments, HSBC, Kempen Capital Management, KfW, and S&P Global Ratings.

The report builds on the first Environment Risk Integration in Sovereign Credit (ERISC) report published in 2012 by UNEP FI and GFN.

The overall objective of the ERISC project is to assesses how environmental risks such as deforestation, climate change and water scarcity affect economies, given that GDP, inflation and current account balances underpin some of the criteria that determine a country’s sovereign credit rating and the cost of borrowing on international capital markets.

UNEP and GFN would like to invite interested parties, governments, banks, investors and rating agencies to work with them to further decipher the link between environmental constraints and sovereign credit risk.

Today’s ERISC report comes ahead of the release of a landmark report on food systems and natural resources written by the International Resource Panel (IRP), a consortium of 34 internationally renowned scientists, over 30 national governments and other groups hosted by UNEP.

The IRP report, which lists a series of solutions that will improve the world’s food system, will be released in Nairobi on 25 May at the United Nations Environment Assembly – the world’s de facto Parliament for the Environment.

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About Global Footprint Network
Global Footprint Network is an international research organization that is changing how the world manages its natural resources and responds to climate change. Since 2003 Global Footprint Network has engaged with more than 50 nations, 30 cities, and 70 global partners to deliver scientific insights that have driven high-impact policy and investment decisions. Global Footprint Network’s finance initiative helps financial institutions quantify and integrate environmental risk in their investments, credit ratings, and country risk analysis.
www.footprintnetwork.org
www.footprintfinance.org

About UNEP Finance Initiative
The United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) is a unique global partnership between the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the global financial sector. UNEP FI works closely with over 200 financial institutions who are Signatories to the UNEP FI Statements, and a range of partner organizations to develop and promote linkages between sustainability and financial performance. Through peer-to-peer networks, research and training, UNEP FI carries out its mission to identify, promote, and realise the adoption of best environmental and sustainability practice at all levels of financial institution operations.
www.unepfi.org

Media Contacts:
Ronna Kelly (USA but in London 12 May – 19 May)
Director of Communications
Global Footprint Network
ronna.kelly@footprintnetwork.org
+1-510-839-8879
Skype: ronna.kelly.gfn

Shereen Zorba
Head of News and Media
UNEP
shereen.zorba@unep.org
+254-20 762 5022

2016地球日庆祝主题:树木

By | Carbon Footprint, Ecological Limits | No Comments

Together with our partner Earth Day Network, we’re happy to give trees a special nod today.

At Global Footprint Network, we have a soft spot for trees and forests. They are an essential pool of biodiversity. And they are one of our most important ecological assets: A whopping 70 percent of humanity’s Ecological Footprint is comprised of demand for forest products (paper, timber, etc.) and carbon capture, an ecological service that forests provide.

In fact, even if the whole Earth were covered with forests, we still wouldn’t have enough to meet our current demand for their products and services…Besides, we obviously need to leave some productive land available for crops to feed us.

Overall, total forest biocapacity worldwide has declined by 5 percent since 1961, the earliest year reliable data is available. On a per-person basis, the decline is much greater, at 59 percent.

Brazil, Russia, the United States and Canada are the countries with the most forested land in the world today. Combined, they generate 54 percent of the renewable goods and services that all forests provide globally.

Protecting, restoring and maintaining forests is a significant responsibility of governments not just for the sake of their people, but for the world at large, as greenhouse gas emissions know no borders.

Of the top five countries with the highest forest biocapacity in the world, China has shown the most remarkable trend reversal, followed by the United States.

Planting trees is an important, wonderful mission to pursue. But at least as important is focusing on reducing the demand we put on forests. First and foremost: carbon sequestration. Because we produce more carbon than our forests can absorb, it accumulates in the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. Since we can never plant enough trees to mitigate climate change, the path is clear: we need to reduce our carbon emissions. Click here for more information and graphs about the status of forests around the world.

从户外派对到环保意识,一位学生对于中国“地球一小时” 的看法

By | 个人足迹, 生态极限 | No Comments

当我还在中国深圳生活和学习的时候,“地球一小时”表演活动是高中校园众多必须参加的活动之一。每逢三月的最后一个星期六,高中环保社团,政府以及公司便会在大型的住宅区内组织游戏以及“微光”表演(相比华丽的舞台,“微光”舞台只配备了极少量灯饰)。此举是为了鼓励晚上在家使用电的居民熄灯并走到户外参与活动。印象最为深刻的当属黑暗中表演的学生乐队和合唱团了。在漆黑的夜晚里,人们可以更安静地欣赏音乐以及感受其带来的愉悦。

现今,大约一半的深圳市政建设和公共区域,例如街道和广场都会参与“地球一小时”活动。城市内都会用LED灯装点出“1小时”,“60分”和“3600秒”的字样。

7年前当我还是一名高中生时,我会更多的将“地球一小时”视为一个大型的户外派对,而不是为保护我们的地球作出杰出的贡献。如今,作为新人开始就职,我逐渐意识到,在一个小时的黑暗中,我们所做的不仅仅是关灯。通过在加州大学伯克利的学习和在全球足迹网络的工作,我更倾向于将“地球一小时”视为一个宝贵的机会。这是一个让每个人重新审视人类与生态系统关系的宝贵机会,并借此机会提高人们的环保意识。

基于全球足迹网络的计算,全球人口正在使用超过地球一年内可再生的资源和服务——水果和蔬菜,肉类,鱼,木材,制衣棉花——的1.6倍。如果我们将这一数据转换成“地球一小时”,这意味着地球一年可再生的自然资源和服务仅供使用37分钟。

今年的“地球一小时”期间,我将身处距离家乡7000英里以外的美国,但是仍然会参加活动。我的计划是爬上伯克利山坡俯瞰旧金山湾区熄灯的全景!无论你在哪里,我都邀请你参加“地球一小时”活动,以此来减少能源消耗并给我们美丽的地球生态系统一个小时的休息。

黄适宇毕业于加州大学伯克利分校并获得环境经济政策和政治经济双学位。她在结束实习期后加入了全球足迹网络并作为研究助理参与了我们在中国的项目。

2016年国家足迹核算正式发布!碳排放占据60%全球生态足迹

By | 个人足迹, 政府, 生态极限, 碳足迹 | No Comments

今天,全球足迹网络正式发布了2016年国家足迹核算并使用了完善的碳足迹计算方法。

相比原碳足迹计算,新的碳足迹计算结果表明全球碳足迹上升16%,同时全球生态足迹上升8%。如今的碳足迹已占据全球生态足迹的60%。

我们非常荣幸地为科研,教育和非商业使用提供国家足迹核算的免费下载版本(请在下方获取更多信息)。基于2016年国家生态核算的互动地图和国家排名请点击这里。同时,您也可以通过观看这个视频了解国家足迹核算。如果您有兴趣参与我们的足迹核算网络讨论,请发送邮件至media@footprintnetwork.org

我们每年更新的国家足迹核算(2012)涵盖了联合国食品及农业组织(FAO),联合国贸易商品统计数据库,国际能源署(IEA),和来自其他资源的数据。

碳计算更新

如上所述,今年我们在多方面完善了核算方法。其中,最大的影响源于森林平均碳封存值(AFCS)采用了新的计算方法——一公顷世界平均森林生态系统的长期碳封存能力。由于纳入了多种森林分类,全球野火及从土壤和采伐木材产品中所产生的森林生态系统排放量新数据源以及核算方法,我们发现相比以往计算,森林的总碳封存量有所下降。

因此,国家生态足迹受到了新计算方法的影响。若一个国家的碳足迹占生态足迹的比例越大,那么较去年的结果,其今年生态足迹就会有越大幅度的上升。 例如,阿曼苏丹国的碳足迹占其生态足迹高达77%的份额,较去年,阿曼在世界“需求高于生态系统再生”的排名中上升超过20位(阿曼现已成为世界前15位的生态负债国)。与此同时,埃塞俄比亚的碳足迹占其生态足迹的7%,在同一排名中下降16位。

完善的碳足迹计算及时地响应了于2015年12月由195个国家和欧盟签署的具有历史意义的巴黎协定。若将所达成的限制平均温度较工业革命前水平升高2摄氏度以上的目标转化为具体碳预算即为:未来二氧化碳总排放量为800亿吨。同时,巴黎协定也将目光转向了国家的总排放量,意识到碳封存土地选择的重要性。于此,生态足迹核算——同时测量了排放量的需求以及生态承载力可提供的碳封存——为检测国家的总排放和国家土地需求间的竞争提供了自然框架。

除了碳,通过生态足迹的棱镜我们可以获得更有趣,更深刻地理解,揭示了国家长远的发展趋势,以及国家生态财富,经济健康发展和人口增长带来的影响。突出的有:

  • PIGS国家 (葡萄牙, 意大利, 希腊, 西班牙) 自00年代中期开始,其人均生态足迹平稳下降。相反地,欧洲经济强国如德国法国自2008年金融危机以来人均生态足迹反弹上升。是什么使得PIGS国家既可以强化经济发展同时减少生态足迹?
  • 亚洲经济高速发展国家,如印度中国韩国,和越南由于居民生活水平提高,人均生态足迹出现了明显上升。

值得关注的是,越南和柬埔寨与其他亚洲不同的是,他们成功通过提高人均生物承载力的方式来支持相应提高的生态足迹。

  • 低收入高人口增长(快速增长需求)或者剧烈动荡的国家(农业活动和产品受阻)——包括洪都拉斯,尼日尔和索马里——正在触及着自身生态系统支持(生物承载力)人口需求(生态足迹)的临界点。

想获取更多信息?下载我们的公共数据包吧!

全球足迹网络现正为科研,教育和非商业使用提供国家足迹核算的免费下载版本,请点击www.footprintnetwork.org/public。公共数据包里包括了所有国家的最新计算结果,国家图表和如果世界人口统一某一国家人均生活水平则需要多少个地球。免费下载的数据包涵盖了新的数据分类方式——按照地区,GDP,人类发展指数和其他分类——同时包括了数据质量评级分数。

关于国家足迹核算

全球足迹网络每年更新国家足迹核算账户,跟踪约200个国家,每个国家每年来自超过30个数据源近20万数据。核算合计了国家一年中对自然资源以及支持地球的土地和海洋的需求——水果,蔬菜,肉制品,鱼类,树木,用于衣料的棉花,木材和碳吸收。这个需求,即生态足迹,可以与为提供这些产品以及服务的国家生态系统,即生物承载力,相比较。

1961年,即数据可追溯到的第一年,我们的地球可以提供多于人类所需的37%资源和服务。从那以后,全球足迹负债——人类所需超过自然预算——明显扩大。2016年国家足迹核算表明,由于过度捕鱼,森林过度砍伐和最严重的碳排放远超过生态系统可吸收量, 世界人口所需已经64%多于自然可提供。这将导致包括野生动物失去家园,渔业崩溃,和大气变化的严重后果。

更多关于国家足迹核算中碳足迹计算的方法可以参考同行Ecological Indicators的评审文章生态足迹: 重新定义碳足迹计算.

关于国家足迹核算许可证的相关问题可联系:data@footprintnetwork.org.

新闻中的生态足迹

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Ecological Footprint data received an eye-opening visual treatment in a recent article in Geographical Magazine, by Benjamin Hennig, Senior Research Fellow in the School of Geography and the Environment at the University of Oxford. Using Ecological Footprint data in the latest Happy Planet Index, Hennig resized a map of the world to reflect each nation’s Ecological Footprint per capita and global population distribution. He then added a traffic light color scheme to reflect the number of planets that would be needed if the world as a whole lived the lifestyle of each country.

做出改变:从北极到中国

By | 生态极限, 碳足迹 | No Comments

I had two passions as a kid: nature and technology. After starting as an electrical engineering and computer science undergraduate at University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), I realized my path lay elsewhere.

Long before I joined Global Footprint Network as Lead Researcher, my passion for nature led me to Alaska and Russia where, as a Ph.D. student at the University of Texas, I used cutting edge technologies to survey three dozen ecosystems to evaluate how global warming is changing landscapes in the Arctic.

Growing up in Orange County, California, it quickly became apparent to me that an emphasis on material wealth was keeping many of us disconnected from fundamental aspects of our life on Earth, starting with the natural ecosystems we depend on.

I ached to have a direct impact on those issues I had come to care deeply about, in no small part through living and working with the communities I encountered near the Arctic Circle and in the desert along the Mexican border. Following my doctorate and post-doc research, I joined Global Footprint Network.

I feel incredibly lucky and privileged to play a part in raising awareness about natural resource constraints in the public and among decision-makers. So much work has been done, yet there are still so many promising paths we can explore to make the Ecological Footprint increasingly relevant to communities around the world.

I am especially excited by the great opportunity that has been steadily growing in China. The concept of the Ecological Footprint resonates well with Chinese vision for creating a modern Ecological Civilization. Guizhou, a small, mountainous, biodiversity-rich province, where urban development, transportation and agriculture are challenging, is aiming to become an Eco-Civilization poster child with the help of the Swiss government.

We’re collaborating closely with the province’s Environmental Protection Department to help leaders along that path. Our next goal is to provide standards that all of China’s provinces can use and share in order to compare results.

You can support sustainability work in China and around the world by donating here. Your contribution could help Guizhou, China’s poorest province, set a precedent and show the rest of the world that it is possible to live well within the means of nature. Your support also could make a difference for impoverished communities everywhere who are beginning to envision their own sustainable future, with our help.

Thank you so much for your continued commitment to Global Footprint Network’s work around the world.